Migraine Without Aura is the most prevalence among all the types of migraine, and it is also known as the ‘a common migraine’. In migraine without aura, the prodrome also known as the aura is absent thus there is no prior warning or notice such as the sensory or visual warnings which do normally accompany migraines. Such a migraine is commonly known to be if high prevalence among women during their menstrual cycle, the frequency of the attacks is alarmingly at a higher rate with more severe symptoms than those of migraine with aura
CAUSES OF MIGRAINES WITHOUT AURA
Although the scientific proof of the causes of migraine without aura is yet to be established, scientists have been able to associate two chemicals in the brain with this type of migraine, these are dopamine and the serotonin which are believed to be crucial roles in the cause of migraines without aura. The underlying theory for the incrimination of these two chemical substances has been proposed to be in the way and mechanism through which their action is executed, which causes the body to overreact, similar to allergic reactions.
These hyper-immune reactions stimulate the migration of immune cells to the brain via the blood vessels, in other to accommodate these excessive immune cells, the brain’s blood vessels must open wider, during this process, certain other chemical substances are released to control the muscles of the brain vessels. This incessant opening and closing of the blood vessel result to migraines without aura- headache
Scientists still have some doubts about the genetic status of this type of migraine, has various researchers have been able to establish the occurrence of migraines among family members. Some people who are allergic to certain foods, odors/smells or environmental conditions can develop such migraines as well, bad habits is also a common cause of migraines. The prevalence of migraine without aura in individual increases with age, as it depletes health conditions at old age. Although not a gender-based health issue, it has been found to have higher occurrence among adolescent boys than girls, while it has a higher prevalence in adult women than men. Although, the symptoms are severe, yet it is not life-threatening.
SYMPTOMS OF MIGRAINES WITHOUT AURA
The most common symptom associated with this type of migraines is a headache, with the pain occurring in the frontal part of the head, or on both sides of the temples, the duration for this type of headache may last for 3 days. During this period, some other symptoms which may manifest include:
- Severe pain that is one-sided in the head
- Photophobia or irritability to light
- Phonophobia or irritability to sounds
- Formation of dark circles under the eyes
DIAGNOSES OF MIGRAINES WITHOUT AURA
In order to ascertain the very cause of the head pain, it is imperative for the doctor to subject the patient to neurological and physical examinations, reviewing the patient’s health history, family background, sensitivities to allergies, drugs administration level/abuse, Occupation, nature of the headache, occurrence and frequencies. Tests such as the examination of the blood, X-rays, MRI etc are also carried out. This is required because of the numerous symptoms associated with migraines without aura, thus critically examining the symptoms is important to be sure whether a patient is suffering from migraine or tensional headache. Migraines without aura lack the warning signs and symptoms, but it creates a nuisance to the sense and often starts before the head pains occur. The most compounding method of diagnoses used is the ‘diagnosis of exclusion’ method which involves the elimination of other causes of headache
The five cardinal symptoms for diagnosing migraine without aura were published by the International Headache Society in 2013. These are
A – At least five migraine attacks that fulfill criteria B through D
B – Each migraine attack, untreated or unsuccessfully treated, lasts from four to 72 hours
C – Head pain that has at least two of the following
- Pain on one side of the head, unilateral pain
- Pulsating quality
- Moderate to severe head pain
- Aggravated by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity, such as walking or climbing stairs
D – During head pain, at least one of the following:
- Nausea and/or vomiting
- Photophobia, light sensitivity and phonophobia, sound sensitivity
E – Not due to any other disorder.
Treatment of Migraines Without Aura
Treatments are targeted at two main goals which are
- Prevention of future attacks
- Staying in a quiet place that shuns of light.
- Application of cold pressure on painful sites
- Use of analgesic
- Appropriate drugs to combat vomiting and nausea
Prevention of Future Occurrence
- Use of appropriate medications
- Avoidance of migraine allergies such as foods, environments, habits, drugs etc
- Avoiding psychological allergies such as anxiety, depression and stress.
- Elimination of physical allergies such as: skipping meals, being often exhausted and tired
- Minimizing or avoiding environmental triggers such as flickering light, changes in air pressure etc.